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He speaks to them "face to face" out of the fire – but Moses was standing between the people and God "to declare 's word to you, because you were afraid of the fire and would not ascend the mountain" (5:4–5).

Critics have called the stipulations of Exodus 34 the "cultic decalogue," as distinguished from the traditional – or the "ethical" – decalogue, and regard it as the more ancient.

This relative dating rests in large measure on the supposition that the "ethical decalogue" reflects the teachings of the literary prophets. I have not committed adultery, etc." (Pritchard, Texts, 35).

The relation of the Decalogue to God's purpose in speaking with Moses in the Exodus account is obscure; why He speaks it to the people in Deuteronomy is only slightly less so. The Decalogue comprised the stipulations of the *covenant between God and Israel (Deut. It was engraved on both sides of two stone "tablets of the covenant" לוּחֹת־הַבְּרִית or עֵדוּת] לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת, traditionally rendered "testimony," is to be connected with Akkadian adū and Old Aramaic (עדיא ,עד(י "treaty"] by the finger of God; Moses ascended Mount Sinai and there he remained, fasting forty days before receiving the tablets (Ex. After God forgave the people, Moses was ordered to provide a second pair of stones on which God wrote exactly what was written on the first pair (Ex. These concern (1) alliances with the idolatrous Canaanites; (2) molten gods; (3) the festival of unleavened bread; (4) firstlings; (5) the Sabbath; (6) the festival of weeks; (7) the ingathering festival; (8) sacrifice; (9) first fruits; and (10) cooking a kid in its mother's milk.

Common to all versions, however, is the affirmation that at Sinai-Horeb the entire people heard God's voice (Ex. They are presented as the terms of God's renewed covenant with Israel, and repeat the injunctions from ff.

not to be too concerned with changing the words so long as their meaning stays the same." The entire passage in which (and in which only) God speaks in the first person is one long paragraph. Jeremiah 35:6–7 shows that the rule of an order (here the Rechabites) might be formally quite similar to the Decalogue. The Decalogue came to be regarded as a summary of biblical law. One interpretation of "they were written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they written" (Ex. The remaining commandments were transmitted by Moses (Mak. Every single Israelite felt as if God was announcing the commandments directly to him (Tanḥ. In some Oriental communities (e.g., in Libya), it was customary to read the Ten Commandments on Shavuot together with the Arabic translation. Ḥiyya , after placing the first command apart as comprehending all the others, divided the other nine (a) according to commands of thought, speech, and action, and (b) according to relations between man and God, man and his family, man and man, reaching the classification shown in Table: Decalogue 2.

Sifrei Numbers (112) calls it all "the first utterance" (concerning idolatry), though common opinion divides it into two (Ḥizzekuni: "The first two 'words' were said in a single utterance"). Like the founding father Jonadab ben Rechab, God defined the conduct required for the well-being of his "holy people" largely through prohibitions. Philo worked out the classes of law generated from each "word": the third "word," for example, covers all the rules of oaths; the fourth, all the sacred seasons and festivals; the fifth, all duties toward masters, elders, and rulers; the sixth, all sexual morality; the seventh, all bodily injury; the eighth, laws of debt, partnership, and robbery. ) gives rise to the view that the entire Decalogue was written on both sides of the tablets (Song R. In many *Reform congregations , the solemn recital of the Ten Commandments is part of the confirmation ceremony which is generally celebrated on Shavuot. Their aim is the perfection of the body and of the soul. –18) aim at controlling emotions and desires in deeds, in words, and in intentions (Philo, Decal. Mishnaic Hebrew עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת aseret hadibberot reflects the specialized use of דִּבֵּר dibber (cf. Again, after Moses descends to the people (), God speaks ("to Moses," ) the entire Decalogue (20:1ff.). The same title in Exodus has traditionally been referred to the "original" version of these statements in Exodus 20:2–14 [17] but see below). Exodus 19:9 announces a dialogue between God and Moses (or an address by God to Moses) to be held at Sinai and overheard by the people, for the purpose of making them believe Moses "ever after." Verse 19 tells of such a dialogue – the contents of which are not specified – amid smoke, quaking, and the blare of a horn (some exegetes identify it with the colloquy of verses 20–24, others, with the Decalogue).The natural construction of the first sentence, however, subordinates it to the second (cf. Local speed dating Washington DC is very popular in the area.The attempts to reconcile these accounts internally and with each other are not convincing. Medieval theologians deduced from the combination of the Decalogue and the motif of the people hearing God's voice, particularly in Exodus 19:9 and Deuteronomy , that God's purpose in proclaiming the Decalogue was achieved when "henceforth the people believed that Moses held direct communication with God, that his words were not creations of his own mind" (Judah Halevi, Sefer ha-Kuzari, ), and hence, that the laws he subsequently communicated originated with God (Maim., Yad, Yesodei ha-Torah, 8:1f.). 28:2), which is comparable (Tur-Sinai, Haran) to the custom attested in Egypt and Hatti of depositing copies of pacts under the feet of gods who had witnessed them.