When treated by the same approach as OCD, voyeuristic behaviors significantly decrease.
There is some evidence that shows that pornography can be used as a form of treatment for voyeurism.
Psychoanalytic theory proposes that voyeurism results from a failure to accept castration anxiety and as a result a failure to identify with the father.
This is a reversal from the historical perspective, moving from a term which describes a specific population in detail, to one which describes the general population vaguely.
One of the few historical theories on the causes of voyeurism comes from psychoanalytic theory.
Compared to the other groups studied, it was found that voyeurs were unlikely to be alcoholics or drug users.
More recent research shows that, compared to the general population, voyeurs were moderately more likely to have psychological problems, use alcohol and drugs, and have higher sexual interest generally.
The diagnosis would not be given to people who experience typical sexual arousal simply by seeing nudity or sexual activity.
In order to be diagnosed with voyeuristic disorder the symptoms must persist for over six months and the person in question must be over the age of 18.
There have been multiple instances of successful treatment of voyeurism through putting patients on fluoxetine and treating their voyeuristic behavior as a compulsion.
Although small spy cameras had existed for decades, advances in miniaturization and electronics since the 1950s have greatly aided the ability to conceal miniature cameras, and the quality and affordability of tiny cameras (often called "spy cameras" or subminiature cameras) has greatly increased.
One of the few studies deals with a case study of a woman who also had schizophrenia.
This limits the degree to which it can generalize to normal populations.
This behavior is not considered voyeurism by today's diagnostic standards, but there was little differentiation between normal and pathological behavior at the time.