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The closure must conform to the finish in order to function, and vice versa.The invention of some closures correspond to certain finishes and a closure may be adapted to old finishes; or both the finish and closure are invented together (Berge 1980).

One interesting variation of the "cracking-off" method is found in William F.Modes (of Modes Glass Company and Streator Bottle & Glass Company fame) 1887 patent for a "Mold for Blowing Turned Bottles." This patent included two significant innovations.(This part is located on this page below.) If you have not read the introductory portions of the Dating page, please click on Cautionary Note which covers the limitations of the morphology based dating of historic bottles as well as other pertinent dating information.Also see the dating Examples page for specific examples on the process of dating a bottle.Mouth-blown bottles: An assortment of methods were employed on mouth-blown bottles to manipulate the glass at the end of the neck - or glass added to the upper neck - to produce a finish or lip and complete a finished bottle.

Some finishing methods could only produce one or two types of finishes.

The most common closures during the mouth-blown bottle era (19th & early 20th centuries) were various shapes and sizes of the simple cork.

However, the variety of closures that can be found on bottles produced during the time span that this website covers (1800 to the mid 20th century) at least rivals the diversity of finish forms and variations.

The major finishing methods are covered here beginning with the generally earliest methods and moving towards the most recent.

This section has the following major parts: A summary of the mouth-blown bottle finishing methods section above is available as a downloadable and printable (pdf) article entitled: "The Finishing Touch: A Primer on Mouth-blown Bottle Finishing Methods with an Emphasis on "Applied" vs.

A closure is the device that in conjunction with the finish (usually), was used to seal the contents inside the bottle.